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Apologetics & Worldview
Lecture 1: Why We Do Apologetics

This introductory lecture is in powerpoint PDF format.

Also, consider the watching the following video clip (10:46 minutes) by Dr. R. C. Sproul, a Presbyterian Calvinist and Reformed Scholar.  He offers an oustanding introduction regarding the need for apologetics by discussing its history as used by the apostle Paul, as evidenced in the writings of the early church fathers (e.g., J. Martyr), and other pivotal thinkers in Christian (e.g., St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas). 

Like R. C. Sproul states, there is a remarkable unity, coherency, and consistency between natural and special revelation.  What God reveals himself in the Bible will not contradict what He reveals himself in nature.  He concludes by reminding us that in every generation the Christian faith needs to be defended.


Lecture 2: Biblical Worldview Thinking
This presentation is in powerpoint.
Lecture 3: 10 Types of Apologetics
This presentation is in powerpoint PDF.
Lecture 3 C 12-Step Classical Method
This is Dr. Norman Geisler and Dr. Frank Turek's 12 Step Classical Methodology which will memorize for class purposes.  Please consult Geisler and Turek's I Don't Have Enough Faith to be an Atheist, to see how this method is "unpacked."
Lecture 3 Supplement: Apologetic Methodologies

This is a supplement to lecture 3 which may be helpful in terms of review.  It is in Microsoft Word

Lecture 4: The Existence of God
This supplement is in Microsoft Word.  The powerpoint used in class is located on the right column of this web page under the title, "Arguments for God's Existence."
Lecture 5: Intelligent Design and Scientific Creationism
Here is the powerpoint presentation on intelligent design, summarizing some of the differences between intelligent design and scientific creationism.
Lecture 5b: The Anthropic Principle

For review from video presentation and reading.

Lecture 5 C: The Moral Law Argument.
An introduction to moral absolutism and various moral law arguments.  It is in powerpoint.
Lecture 5 d The Heart-in-the Hole Argument
This powerpoint discusses the reality of "spiritual incompleteness" apart from the God of the Bible.   This outline is based upon Ramesh Richard's awesome book, Mending your Soul:  The Spiritual Path to Inner Wholeness.
Lecture 5 F Pascal's Wager Argument

Pragmatic Justification for Faith by 17th Century Christian Philosopher Blaise Pascal.

Supplement: "The God Delusion" by R. Dawkins

Here is a link to a critical review by Dr. Alvin Plantinga of Richard Dawkins' work, The God Delusion

Below is a link toTime Magazine featuring an interview type debate with atheist Richard Dawkins and Evangelical Christian Francis Collins, the director of the Genome Project:,9171,1553986,00.html

Lecture 7 The Reliability of the Bible
Here is an overview of the reliability of the Bible.  This does not include historical verifiability argument (treating Scripture as a historical document).  However, you are responsible for knowing this argument.
Lecture 7 b Inerrancy of Scripture

I recommend Thy Word is Truth by Edward J. Young; Total Inerrancy by Robert P. Lightner; Inerrancy (edited by Norman Geisler); Norman Geisler and William E. Nix; A General Introduction to the Bible; Josh McDowell's New Evidence That Demands a Verdict; Prophecy Knowledge Handbook by John F. Walvoord; Inspiration and Authority of the Bible by B. B. Warfield.

Lecture 7 c Canonicity of Scripture

Norman Geisler and William Nix's work, A General Introduction to the Bible, is most helpful on this issue.

Canonicity Lecture by Dan Enright

Here is Dan Enright's powerpoint presentation on biblical canonicity.  He was student intern for fall 2007.

Lecture 7 D Principles for Understanding Bible Difficulties
I whole heartily recommend Dr. Norman Geisler's When Critics Ask, and Gleason Archer's Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties as reference tools on this subject.
Apologetic Mid-Term Review

This-mid term review is in MS Word. I may add addiitonal readings from which you may be tested. So, know Groothius' work (all chapters read that go up to mid-term exam). See your studies as an expression of worship. Don't merely get by; flourish in everything!

Lecture 7 E Translation Theories
This helps answer the question why we have different versions of the Bible.
Lecture 8 Historical Argument for Jesus Christ
I very highly recommend reading Dr. Gary Habermas' writings on the historical argument for Jesus Christ: Ancient Evidence for the Life of Jesus:  Historical Records of His Death and Resurrection (Nashville:  Thomas Nelson, 1984); In Defense of Historical Jesus:  Ancient Evidence for the Life of Christ (Joplin:  College Press, 1996); The Resurrection of Jesus: An Apologetic (Grand Rapids:  Baker Book House, 1980).
Ancient Quotes from Antiquity on Christ
Here is Dan Enright's presentation of some significant non-Christian quotes regarding Christ from antiquity.  He was student intern for fall 2007.
Lecture 1 Cumulative Case for Christian Faith

Introduction to a cumulative case approach (an integrative model) for the Christian faith.  This is an introduction to the method and an examination of argument # 1:  God uniquely accounts for the physical universe's beginning.  It is in PDF.

Can Beauty Point Us to God?

This powerpoint is in PDF.  This presentation has been expanded to include 8 different types of argument and more evidences from beauty for God's existence.

The Task of Apologetics

This exceptional handout is by the one and only Justin Tubbs.  It s an awesome read and clears away many of the misconceptions by Christians regarding the value of and need for Christian apologetics.

Apologetics and Saving Faith

This is another exceptional handout by Justin Tubbs.  This handout provides an excellent summary of the relationship between apologetics and the role of saving faith.  In fact, it clears away common misconceptions and uninformed biases regarding the value of and need for apologetics. 

Moral Law Apologetics

This presentation is largely based upon J. Budziszewski's work on moral apologetics.  It is in powerpoint.  I highly recommend J. Budziszewski's two outstanding articles,  "Practical Responses To Relativism and Postmodernism:  Part I" and "Practical Responses to Relativism and Postmodernism:  Part II" in Philosophy:  Christian Perspectives for the New Millennium, edited by Paul Copan, Scott B. Lulely, and Stan W. Wallace.

Fallacies About Relativism and its Relatives
This presentation follows moral law apologetics by examining seven fallacies often made by others.  It is in powerpoint.
 Here is an important article every student of theology and apologetics should read. It is by the late Dr. Roger Nicole.
Rational Answers, Reasonable Hope

Rational Answers, Reasonable Hope:  Why Intelligent People believe in the Christian Faith.  This powerpoint presentation is in PDF.  It offers 10 reasons why the God of the Bible provides both a stable and consistent metaphysical foundation for explaining the important realities and phenonema encountered in our world and lives today.  In other words, the biblical worldview has explanatory power!  The approach is adapted from Kenneth Richard Samples, Without a Doubt:  Answering the 20 Toughest Faith Questions (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2007), 21-33.  This is an excellent work worth reading!

Dealing with Doubt by Gary Habermas
Excellent book for those who are struggling with doubt, whether, intellectual, emotional, or volitional.
Hope for Believers Who Doubt
 This article is in PDF. This brief study compliments Dr. Gary Habermas' book, Dealing with Doubt & Os Guinness' God in the Dark: The Assurance of Faith Beyond a Shadow of Doubt. 
Lecture 1: What is a worldview?
It is in powerpoint.
Lecture 1 What is a Biblical Worldview
This lecture notes to class # 1. 
Lecture 1a Starting Point for Worldview Thinking
This presentation summarizes some of the explanatory power of the Christian worldview and the harmonization of both natural theology and special revelation.  The question is raised, "What should the starting point for a Christian worldview be?"  My response is that begins with the existence of God (1), then the historical reality, person, work, and bodily resurrection of Jesus Christ, (2), and concludes with the (3) uniqueness and reliability of the Bible.  All of these harmonized together provide a robust foundation for a solid Christian worldview.
Lecture 2 Worldview Systems
Lecture 2 for the 2006 Fall Worldview Class.  It is available here in powerpoint.
Lecture 3 How to Write a Worldview Paper
Please be sure to follow this outline for writing your worldview paper.  Make sure you paragraphs are comprehensive and in summary form.  Always justify every answer you give.  Thanks.
Lecture 3a Reality

This presentation is in powerpoint.

Lecture 3 What is Truth?
Here is the powerpoint regarding truth and direct realism.
Lecture 3 A Truth and Reality Worldview Class
Greetings.  Here is a supplement to assist you in your definition of truth and defense of reality.
Absolute Truth????

Here is a brief interview-based presentation provided by Christianity Today asking various people questions regarding the nature and origin of "truth."

Lecture 4a: God and Biblical Worldview

This introduction is in powerpoint.

Lecture 4b: Arguments for God's Existence

This is an updated presentation regarding God's existence from major arguments/evidences.

Lecture 6: The Problem of Evil

Here are the notes from Kurt Wise's lecture on the problem of evil.  It is in PDF.


Lecture 7: Introduction to Ethics
It is in PDF.  This presentation is also used for ethics course.
"Atheists: No God, no reason, just whining"

See this article by "Atheists:  No God, no reason, just whining", An Op-ed. article in the LA Times by Charlotte Allen.  It reminds me of some of the major insights found in Dr. Paul C. Vitz' book, The Faith of the Fatherless:  The Psychology of Atheism,0,491082.story

Bodily Burial vs. Cremation:
This powerpoint presentation is by one of my seminary students:  Darrell Stein.  He raises the following question:  Cremation or Bodily Burial:  Which Brings God More Honor? 
Why the God of the Bible Makes the Most Sense
This is a three-step handout why I believe the God of the Bible makes the most sense in contrast to other worldviews.  it is in PDF.
Synopsis of Perils, Purposes, Vanity of & Longings for Pleasure
This is a chart of my studies on the problem of pleasure. It is in PDF.
We Become What We Behold: The Search for Significance & Value in an Image-Driven Age:
In this digital age our young people are surrounded by imagery. But sadly, much of the imagery does not correspond to how things actually are. Thus, in an effort to embrace an identity that is provocative and popular, but consumer-centered and imaginary, many people strive to become what is impossible in order to find fulfillment, meaning, and purpose. But because these efforts are in vain, the emptiness within them remains. So, this article explores what this means and how Jesus Christ can meet our deepest needs for significance and value.
The Danger of Knowing Jesus Christ: A Dangerous Idea, Indeed!

This is an exposition of Philippians 2:8-15. 

The Decalogue of a Sensate Culture

This is a handout adapted from J. Budziszewski's What We Can't Not Know:  A Guide (Dallas:  Spence Publishing), 162-3.  When parents say they want to allow their children to make up their own minds about religion, what in fact, are they teaching them?  It is in PDF format.

The Banner of a Sensate Culture

Don't think, feel!  The exhange of truth for feelings.  Chart adapted and revised from material by J. Budziszewski's What You Can't Not Know (Dallas:  Spence Publishing, 2003), 176-81.  It is in PDF format.

Probing Our Sensate Culture
This handout involves three central terms to consider when contemplating the overwhelming and snowballing degeneration of the moral nature of our Western culture.  This analysis is adapted from Os Guinness' very thought-provoking work, Time for Truth:  Living Free in a world of lies, hype, & spin (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2000), 28-9.  It is in PDF format.
Lecture 1 What is a worldview
This is class 1 powerpoint presentation.  It is in powerpoint.
Lecture 8: Law, Government, & Economics
Here is Marvin McNeese's first lecture on Law, Government, and Economics. It was given on 25 October 2007.  It is in powerpoint.
The Philosophy and Power of Media.
This is an introduction to the power and philosophy of advertising, entertainment, media, and music as used in lecture 13 of CBS's worldview course.  Consider the following quote by Marshall McLuhan's classic and pivotal work, Understanding Media:  "We become what we behold.  We shape our tools and then our tools shape us."  It is in powerpoint PDF.
3 Forms of Flawed Spirituality that Reign in Today's World
This chart is adapted from Ravi Zacharias' work, The Grand Weaver: How God Shapes Us Through the Events of Our Lives, 190-91.  It is in PDF.
Evangelicals and the Arts

Here is a link to a July 27, 2007 Associated Press aticle on evangelicals and the arts.  It is titled, "Evangelicals Seek 'Creators of Culture' Role."  In this article, Dr. Steve Halla, the Director of the Theology and Arts program at Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, who was interviewed, asks an interesting question, ""If we as Christians believe that creativity and imagination is a gift from God, why have we neglected it for so many years?"

The Decalogue of Illiterate Evangelicals
Evangelicals, both church leadership and Christian parents in the home, who do not give utmost appreciation, attention, and respect to thoroughly understanding & teaching the Bible, are in fact, teaching future generations a powerful set of beliefs with terrible consequences.  I developed this chart after listening to an account of a long-time evangelical attending a very large seeker-sensitive church; he has never read Paul's Epistle to the Romans; he has never been encouraged by his church leadership to bring and open his Bible in church; and he has never been motivated by his church leadership to thoughtfully, purposefully, and seriously study the Scripture.  It is in PDF.
Has Europe Gone Beyond Belief?
What is the future for Europe?  This news report explores the trend of Christianity, Islam, Nihilism, and Moral Relativism in Western Europe.  Check it out.
Evangelical Models of Christian Ethics
This chart summarizes four evangelical models of Christian ethics:  (1) non-conflict absolutism (or unqualified absolutism); (2) conflict absolutism; (3) graded absolutism; (4) aretaic graded absolutisim. This chart is used in the below series on moral decision-making. It is in PDF.
Lesson 1: Basis and Justification for Moral Decision-Making

The 4 message series focuses on the choices in life we make, the habits we create, and the consequences we live with. This first lesson is concerned with the basis and justification for moral decision-making (moral values, duties, and accountability): God's revelation: God's natural moral law and Scripture.  This particular lesson answers three questions: (1) How do we make moral decisions that honor God? Are we able to communicate our particular model of ethics to others in our disciple-making ministry. (3) What are we to do when we face a moral conflict/dilemma or hard-case situation? It is in PDF.

Lesson 2: Moral Decision-Making & the Will of God
This second lesson is concerned with discovering and doing God's will.  It is in PDF.
Lesson 3: Make it your aim to be well-pleasing to Jesus Christ

This is the third of a four part series on decision-making and the will of God.  In sum, I suggest that the believer's master-value as a way of life ought to be one that qualitivately seeks to be "well-pleasing to the Lord Jesus Christ."  It offers an exposition of 2 Corinthians 5:9, considers how one can be well-pleasing to the Lord Jesus Christ, and offers 55 indicators on how a Christian might know if this is indeed his or her practice.

Draw the lines on Pornography!

The following video clip is an excerpt and plea by Ravi Zacharias to draw the lines on pornography:

Lecture 1: Biblical View of Sex
This series of lectures is developed for the course, "Biblical View of Sex."  Lecture 1 is titled, "Sex-Saturated Culture."  It is in powerpoint.
Central Questions Regarding Biblical View of Sex
Here are eleven questions/statements regarding the answers my students in spring 2009 course are hoping to receive in this course, "Biblical View of Sex."  It is in Word.
Lecture 2 Designed for Pleasure
This is lecture 2 for the course, "Biblical View of Sex."  It is in powerpoint.
Lecture 3: Biblical Masculinity & Femininity
This lecture considers biblical masculinity and femininity following Elizabeth Elliott's presentation from Ligonier Ministries, "Harmony of Differences."  It is in powerpoint.
Lecture 4: Biblical View of Romance & Intimacy
This presentation is in powerpoint.
Question # 1: Problems of lust, masturbation, loneliness, and time management
 Here's a brief response to a question about lust, masturbation, loneliness, and time management.  It is in PDF.
Question # 2: How can God send people to hell?

Here's a brief response to the following questions:  "How could a 'loving' God send people to hell for eternity? Why does he have to send them to hell?-couldn't he just wipe them out or something? If Jesus is the only way, what about little kids in Africa that have never heard of Jesus?"  It is in  PDF.

In the same work, Kingdom Triangle, J. P. Moreland writes:

"I suggest that a worldview functions as a set of habits, forming background beliefs that direct our acts of noticing or failing to notice various features of reality.  Depending on factors, this worldview function may yield accurate or inaccurate experiences and beliefs.  It's not that we cannot see reality itself.  In fact, through effort we can look at things from a different perspective and further confirm or disconfirm our previous viewpoint.  Habit-forming beliefs do not stand between a person and reality as do glasses.  Rather, they habitualize ways of seeing and thinking which, through effort, can be changed or retained, on the basis of comparing them with reality itself." 


In his work, Recapture the Wonder, Dr. Ravi Zacharias, traces some of the factors that have contributed to the decline of our Western thought and culture. Adapting some insights from another thinker, he states: 

“In the 1950s kids lost their innocence.
They were liberated from their parents by well-paying jobs, cars, and lyrics in music that gave rise to a new term ---the generation gap.

In the 1960s, kids lost their authority.
It was a decade of protest---church, state, and parents were all called into question and found wanting. Their authority was rejected, yet nothing ever replaced it.

In the 1970s, kids lost their love. It was the decade of me-ism dominated by hyphenated words beginning with self.
Self-image, Self-esteem, Self-assertion....It made for a lonely world. Kids learned everything there was to know about sex and forgot everything there was to know about love, and no one had the nerve to tell them there was a difference.

In the 1980s, kids lost their hope.
Stripped of innocence, authority and love and plagued by the horror of a nuclear nightmare, large and growing numbers of this generation stopped believing in the future.

In the 1990s kids lost their power to reason. Less and less were they taught the very basics of language, truth, and logic and they grew up with the irrationality of a postmodern world.

In the new millennium, kids woke up and found out that somewhere in the midst of all this change, they had lost their imagination. Violence and perversion entertained them till none could talk of killing innocents since none was innocent anymore.”

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